Computer processing is the main force behind the computational power of any PC of the world. The human brain in relation is the source of learning and cognitive enhancement in the society. The increasing success in the field of information technology and computers has opened the new vistas of mind-computer comparisons. The computational metaphor—the comparison of the mind/brain to the program/computer and vice versa —is now an intellectual and interesting subject of many social and behavioral sciences.
BASIC COMPUTER WORKING
The computer performance is the result of a number of processes and procedures occurring in different parts of a PC. Computer, with the help of its parts & operating system, administers all its activities through a compact network of various interconnected circuits and hardware components. The basic computer functioning in CPU is a three step activity as described below:
step-1: The computer user gives an instruction to PC to do this (for me) with the help of an input device (i.e. keyboard, mouse, microphone, touch screen, web-cam, scanner etc.)
Step-2: According to given instructions of the user, the CPU acts upon them accordingly and performs certain processes in the microprocessor. This step of calculations and logical working is called Processing.
Step-3: After processing, the result is shown to user on to an output device¾ can be monitor, printer, speaker etc.
The processing (in step–2 above) is performed on a microchip known as microprocessor, sometimes called a logic-chip or brain and is the “engine of a Computer”, capable of producing logical results on the basis of given instructions and brings them into motion (means perform certain process) when you turn your computer-on. It is composed of thousands & millions of transistors and logic-gates.
CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)
A computer actually a CPU, is responsible to follow and process the instructions given by the user. A combination of complicated basic units (electronic circuits) makes the processor to work efficiently, think effectively and execute computer programs. Data sent and received in microprocessor and different components of PC have tags of source and destination addresses so that data can reach at correct places. The processor’s over all controlling of peripherals of a PC through well integrated connections & circuits is known as Central Processing Unit (CPU).
The CPU consists of:
Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU): The ALU is a part of CPU where calculations are done, comparisons are made and important processing operations are performed.
Control Unit (CU): It monitors all the operations of the computer system such as requesting data from the keyboard, sending data to the printer and storing programs in the storage unit. It makes sure all parts of the computer do their jobs according to the instructions and in proper sequence.
Extremely precise calculations & Control
· Immediate Access or Memory Unit: The processor brings all the programs and data to the memory unit before processing. That is the reason why the memory unit is called the working space of the computer. As it is nearer to the microprocessor compared to the disk storage for quick processing, it is also known as immediate access.
Record Filtering and Processing:
The system of AllahSWA is collecting & maintaining the record of every bit of activity of everybody & on the Day of judgment –An accurate record of each-man will be presented for calculation of rewards & punishments
Verily We shall give life to the dead, and We record that which they send before and that which they leave behind, and of all things have We taken account in a clear Book (a huge database).
Operation: The fundamental operation of most CPUs, regardless of the physical form they take, is to execute a sequence of stored instructions called a program. The program is represented by a series of numbers that are kept in some kind of computer memory. There are four steps that nearly all CPUs use in their data operation; -Fetch-Decode-Execute-Writeback
Process: In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program, consisting of one or more activities, that is being sequentially executed by a computer system that has the ability to run several computer programs concurrently.
Multitasking: In computers, having single CPU (microprocessor), only one task is said to be running at any point of time, meaning that the CPU is actively executing instructions for that single task only. If user is interested to run more than one task, the problem is resolved by ”Multitasking”- it is a method by which multiple tasks (also known as processes), share common processing resources such as a CPU. Multitasking solves it by(time) scheduling in which many tasks may be performed alternatively with the help of a single processor¾ one task running at any given time(one by one), while remaining tasks wait their turn and so on.
A computer program itself is just a passive collection of instructions, while a process is the actual execution of those instructions. Several processes may be associated with the same program; for example, opening up several instances(sub-tasks) of the same program often means more than one process is being executed. In the computing world, processes are formally defined by the operating system (OS) running them and so may differ in detail from one OS to another.
PART-2 of 2
Human brain is a complex system, composed of many parts with specific responsibilities and functionalities. The brain composed of many sub-components used for thinking processes like cognition and logical understanding, and controls body system and memory parts. The memory parts then further divided as permanent storage partition and temporary memory. The Man uses the stored information, to process information and to execute tasks and utilizes the same for mathematical calculations and carrying out complex algorithms. The human brain controls all the body activities through an interconnected networked nervous system (as wires and circuits) and instinctive behavior is being installed in the body. The nervous systems takes instructions from the brain transmit it through nerves in a fraction of a second to perform different activities and functionalities in the body. Many body activities are controlled by the Man himself while many others are automated. Allah said in the Qur’an;
Every nerve cell possesses special units for transmitting data, all by itself. The brain is capable of performing the work of millions of transistors and this figure is very low compared to the 10 billion nerve cells engaged in the electrical exchange of information in the brain. In addition, the brain is able to perceive taste and smell signals and there is yet no product of industry capable of doing all this. It is the brain which helps us to learn and understand new ideas;
HUMAN BRAIN AND MICROPROCESSOR
Microprocessor is an electronic hardware. Its design and synchronized internal circuitry embedded with low-level software program makes it capable to perform a series of logical tasks and variety of functions. The human brain controls many activities like a microprocessor at a time, such as: heartbeat, balance of weight, breathing, body temperature regulation, and many similar things that we don’t think about. The quick thinking and reflexes, is the characteristic of living creatures only where as the computer plays an important role with the help of specialized systems controlling entire production of factories to¾ little chips in washing machines that intelligently monitor the washing process. The processor controls different functions and activities of computer under a certain logic where as brain takes care of emotions, mathematical calculations, body co-ordinations and many other tasks needed for our daily activities. Brain cells signal each other electrochemically and enzymatically. Computers have no common sense or real intellect unlike the human brain. Traditional artificial intelligence (AI) manages to imitate and resemble human intellect because programmers try to make the computer react like a human brain by defining a set of rules for the computer to follow. Computers can only follow instructions and rules preset by the programmers and no one can cross the architectural boundaries of the designer.
COMPUTER INTELLIGENCE AND HUMAN LEARNING
In CPU, the microprocessor is the key player for the effective, fast and accurate performance of a PC. Apparently, it seems very odd to say that computer itself is a blank device, cannot do anything and even not intelligent at all, it is the team of computer experts to inject intelligence- defines the way of working and processing techniques for computer systems using different low level and high level computer languages and introducing procedures for users. As a result, the user controls the performance of the hardware and produce output as per desires. It means, “the better you teach (program) a PC, the better it would perform” and ultimately “better output (performance) you get”. It is a team effort in which experts of different software & hardware specialties work together to produce intelligent platforms to be used for a variety of functions. It reveals that an expert programmer can produce a state of the art software but an average or low level programmer would produce a less useful or even least tactful program for the same(top of the line) platform- it is the computer designers and then programmers who build intelligence in the PC.
Let us consider a specific example
Suppose, there is a new born baby, his brain is virtually blank¾ with the passage of time, it initially starts learning from the environment, parents, family members, elders grown up, gets knowledge from friends, teachers, through social interaction gradually improves wisdom, develops thinking process, techniques of analysis getting basic intelligence continuously. If guiding process (or programming of a child) by worthy teachers and parents is growing systematically and continuously then the brain (as a processor) would develop a habit of logical & just thinking the same would further improve in coming years, enabling him to perform correct comparisons, calculations and logical decision; because of the ‘brain-software’ fed-in by teachers/parents correctly. Conversely, if a child is left unattended, not guided properly and not given the opportunity of good learning then after few years, he wouldn’t be able to think correctly, compute efficiently and his cognitive capacity would comparatively be very low.
We can articulate; that if a person lives in a healthy social & moral learning environment, he will be trained by listening / speaking (good words & expressions), watching decency and adopting righteous deeds / manners¾ would ultimately builds-up a constructive personality, like a control unit of brain. On contrary, an individual grown up in a bad society ¾ get no (or meager) chances of differentiating ‘Halal and Haram’, no Salat & no Fast - no guidance over music, without social norms and moral values would eventually be programmed under the influence of these factors - prone to evil trends and ill-will ¾ would behave in the similar manner in the life.
Parents and teachers are continuously training and guiding a child to, how to think? How to calculate? How to compare? How to decide between virtues and evils? How to initiate the capabilities of brain? etc and as a result the child breeds up in the same fashion. We say computer expert develops logic for computers where as the Man learns from the environment, society and interactive members.
You cannot ask a child to resolve an “algebraic equation” if he had not been taught it before.
You can ask to a child only what you have taught (or guide) to him.
لاَيُكَلِّفُ ٱللَّهُ نَفْساًإِلاَّوُسْعَهَالَهَامَاكَسَبَت ْوَعَلَيْهَامَاٱكْتَسَبَت ْرَبَّنَالاَتُؤَاخِذْنَاإِننَّ سِينَآأَوْأَخْطَأْنَارَبَّنَاوَلاَتَحْمِل ْعَلَيْنَآإِصْراًكَمَاحَمَلْتَهُ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِنَا
رَبَّنَاوَلاَتُحَمِّلْنَامَالاَطَاقَةَلَنَابِه ِوَٱعْفُ عَنَّاوَٱغْفِرْلَنَاوَٱرْحَمْنَآأَنت َمَوْلاَنَافَٱنْصُرْنَاعَلَى ٱلْقَوْمِٱلْكَافِرِينَ
Allah does not burden any human being with a responsibility heavier than he can bear. Everyone will enjoy the fruit of the good that one has earned and shall suffer for the evil that one has committed.
O Believers! pray like this to AllahSWA
Logic Gates: In digital operations, a ‘Logic Gate’ performs a logical-operation – it has one or more logic inputs and produces a single logic output.
Registers: In computer architecture, a processor register is a small amount of storage available on the CPU whose contents can be accessed more quickly than storage available elsewhere.